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Raman spectra obtained by excitation with a Nd:YAG laser at nm show no disturbing fluorescence effects; therefore the plant tissue can be recorded without any special preparation. The used diamond ATR technique allows to measure very small sample amounts microL or mg without the necessity to perform time-consuming pre-treatments. When applying cluster analysis a reliable discrimination of "low-alkaloid" and "high-alkaloid" poppy single-plants can be easily achieved.

The examples presented in this study provide clear evidence of the benefits of Raman and ATR-IR spectroscopy in efficient quality control, forensic analysis and high-throughput evaluation of poppy breeding material. Las telenovelas juveniles mexicanas y las adolescentas obesas. Development of basic populations of plant species suitable for the production of fatty acids, especially considering linseed, false flax and poppy. Seed yields, oil contents and oil yields from experiments conducted over a four year period and at five locations are presented for linseed linum usitatissimum , false flax Camelina sativa and oilseed poppy Papaver somniferum.

The influence of year and location on the yields was very high, but oil contents have been relatively stable. Yields and oil contents of winter false flax were slightly higher than in summer false flax. The variability in the collections of plant genetic resources of the presented crops is demonstrated at the example of the frequency distributions of plant height. First results of yield trials of crossing progenies in false flax and poppy show the large possibilities of increasing seed yields.

Integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses reveals the components of alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy cell cultures. Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaver somniferum opium poppy is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine. In response to treatment with a fungal elicitor, the biosynthesis and accumulation of sanguinarine is induced along with other plant defense responses in opium poppy cell cultures. The transcriptional induction of alkaloid metabolism in cultured cells provides an opportunity to identify components of this process via the integration of deep transcriptome and proteome databases generated using next-generation technologies.

Results A cDNA library was prepared for opium poppy cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 10 h. Assembly of these sequences yielded 93, unigenes, of which 23, were assigned Gene Ontology annotations.


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Transcripts encoding all known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes were identified in the EST database, 5 of which were represented among the 50 most abundant transcripts. Query of an opium poppy -specific EST database substantially enhanced peptide identification. Eight out of 10 known sanguinarine biosynthetic enzymes and many relevant primary metabolic enzymes were represented in the peptide database.

Conclusions The integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses provides an effective platform to catalogue the components of secondary metabolism, and to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The establishment of corresponding transcript and protein databases generated by next-generation technologies in a.

Papaver somniferum opium poppy is the source for several pharmaceutical benzylisoquinoline alkaloids including morphine, the codeine and sanguinarine.

A cDNA library was prepared for opium poppy cell cultures treated with a fungal elicitor for 10 h. The integration of deep transcriptome and proteome analyses provides an effective platform to catalogue the components of secondary metabolism, and to identify genes encoding uncharacterized enzymes. The establishment of corresponding transcript and protein databases generated by next-generation technologies in a system with a well-defined metabolite profile facilitates.

Rapid qualitative and quantitative analysis of opiates in extract of poppy head via FTIR and chemometrics: towards in-field sensors. Identification and quantification of the opiates morphine and thebaine has been achieved in three commercial poppy cultivars using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, from a simple and rapid methanolic extraction, suitable for field analysis. The limits of detection were 0.

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The chemometrics has been used to identify specific "signature" peaks in the poppy IR spectra for characterisation of cultivar by its unique fingerprint offering a potential forensic application in opiate crop analysis. Genetic variability for different quantitative traits in M2 generations of opium poppy Papaver somniferum L.

An experiment on induced mutation in two varieties of opium poppy was laid out to create new genetic variability for isolation of high yielding genotypes. The results indicated that GCV, heritability and genetic advance were higher in M1 than M2 in both the varieties for all the traits except for opium and seed yield. The genetic advance was consistently high for opium yield, seed yield and capsule weight in all the doses for both the varieties with some exception.

These treatment levels also had high values of all these three genetic parameters for capsules per plant, capsule size and capsule weight.

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The values of these three parameters were also high for all the doses in M2 generations of both the varieties for opium yield, seed weight, capsule weight and capsule size in comparison to control. The GCV, heritability and genetic advance were consistently high for all the mixed doses in NBRI-5 for opium yield, seed weight and capsule weight, with some exception [it. Uncoupled defense gene expression and antimicrobial alkaloid accumulation in elicited opium poppy cell cultures. Treatment of opium poppy Papaver somniferum L. TYDC genes were differentially expressed in response to elicitor treatment.

In contrast, TYDC2-like transcript levels increased more slowly but were sustained for an extended period. An elicitor preparation from Pythium aphanidermatum was less effective in the induction of TYDC mRNA levels and alkaloid accumulation; however, both elicitors equally induced accumulation of PAL transcripts. The calmodulin antagonist N- 6-aminohexyl chloronaphthalenesulfonamide and the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine partially blocked the fungal elicitor-induced accumulation of sanguinarine. However, only staurosporine and okadaic acid, an inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, blocked the induction of TYDC1-like transcript levels, but they did not block the induction of TYDC2-like or PAL transcript levels.

Further investigation into the biochemical functions of CODM and T6ODM revealed extensive and unexpected roles for such enzymes in the metabolism of protopine, benzo[c]phenanthridine, and rhoeadine alkaloids. When assayed with a wide range of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, CODM, T6ODM, and the functionally unassigned paralog DIOX2, renamed protopine O-dealkylase, showed novel and efficient dealkylation activities, including regio- and substrate-specific O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation.

Enzymes catalyzing O,O-demethylenation, which cleave a methylenedioxy bridge leaving two hydroxyl groups, have previously not been reported in plants.

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Similar cleavage of methylenedioxy bridges on substituted amphetamines is catalyzed by heme-dependent cytochromes P in mammals. Preferred substrates for O,O-demethylenation by CODM and protopine O-dealkylase were protopine alkaloids that serve as intermediates in the biosynthesis of benzo[c]phenanthridine and rhoeadine derivatives. Dioxygenases catalyze O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation with widespread roles in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy. Construcciones de identidad en novelas mexicanas de infancia.

Combining ability of opium poppy genotypes over F1 and F2 generations of 8x8 diallel cross. Full Text Available Combining abilities for yield, its component traits and morphine content were examined in opium poppy tounderstand the inheritance pattern of these traits, and to identify genotypes suitable for genetic improvement of yield andmorphine content. Theresults showed that most of the traits are governed by non additive gene action however additive gene action is also important. The parents BR, BR, BR were found to be good general combiners for yield and its related traits and can beutilized in multiple breeding programs.

En este trabajo la informalidad es el residuo, es la mano de obra sobrante una vez que el sector moderno ocupa la fuerza laboral necesaria a un salario real dado y conforme al capital disponible. Biotypes of scentless chamomile Matricaria maritima L. Dostal and common poppy Papaver rhoeas L. Scentless chamomile Matricaria maritima L. Inhibitors of acetolactate synthase ALS are commonly used for control of these weeds.


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The herbicides are characterised by a single site of action in the plant, which has an influence on selection of the weed population and may result in a rapid development of resistance. In , five seed samples of scen Quantitative 1H NMR metabolomics reveals extensive metabolic reprogramming of primary and secondary metabolism in elicitor-treated opium poppy cell cultures. Abstract Background Opium poppy Papaver somniferum produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a model system to study plant alkaloid metabolism. The plant is cultivated as the only commercial source of the narcotic analgesics morphine and codeine, but also produces many other alkaloids including the antimicrobial agent sanguinarine.

Modulations in plant secondary metabolism as a result of environmental perturbations are often associated with the al Amitav ghoshs Sea of poppies : a web of gender, cultural and mythic relations in the nineteenth-century colonial India. This doctoral dissertation focuses on Amitav Ghoshs Sea of Poppies to investigate, from a postcolonial perspective, the way in which the writer deconstructs gender in the nineteenth-century India.

In Chapter I, I analyze men and women within the Indian familial space in the nineteenth century, demonstrating how both are subjected to the disempowering effects of traditional rituals such as sati , structures of Brahminical morality and patriarchal violence. The main character pair Deet Local infection of opium poppy leaves by Peronospora somniferi sporangia can give rise to systemic infections and seed infection in resistant cultivars. Downy mildew DM of opium poppy Papaver somniferum caused by Peronospora somniferi is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop due to the systemic nature of infection as compared with local infections caused by Peronospora meconopsidis, the other downy mildew pathogen of this crop.

We developed an inoculation method using Peronospora somniferi sporangia as inoculum and demonstrated for the first time that local infection of leaves by sporangia give rise to systemic infections in the plant as well as of seeds. Our results also showed that this inoculation protocol was very effective in reproducing disease symptoms and assessing the resistance response to DM in opium poppy genotypes under field conditions. This latter aspect deserves further attention while breeding opium poppy for resistance to P. Determination of fatty acid, tocopherol and phytosterol contents of the oils of various poppy Papaver somniferum L.

Full Text Available The fatty acid, tocopherol and sterol contents of the oils of several poppy seeds were investigated. The oils contained an appreciable amount of -tocopherol The major sterols were -sitosterol, ranging from Los aceites contienen una cantidad apreciable de -tocoferol Full Text Available Abstract Background Opium poppy Papaver somniferum produces a diverse array of bioactive benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and has emerged as a model system to study plant alkaloid metabolism.

Modulations in plant secondary metabolism as a result of environmental perturbations are often associated with the altered regulation of other metabolic pathways. As a key component of our functional genomics platform for opium poppy we have used proton nuclear magnetic resonance 1H NMR metabolomics to investigate the interplay between primary and secondary metabolism in cultured opium poppy cells treated with a fungal elicitor.

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Results Metabolite fingerprinting and compound-specific profiling showed the extensive reprogramming of primary metabolic pathways in association with the induction of alkaloid biosynthesis in response to elicitor treatment. Overall, detectable and dynamic changes in the metabolome of elicitor-treated cells, especially in cellular pools of carbohydrates, organic acids and non-protein amino acids were detected within 5 hours after elicitor treatment. The metabolome of control cultures also showed substantial modulations 80 hours after the start of the time course, particularly in the levels of amino acids and phospholipid pathway intermediates.

La muestra pretende ser representativa del primer semestre de Background Leishmaniasis is a worldwide disease prevalent in tropical and sub tropical countries. Many attempts have been made and different strategies have been approached to develop a potent vaccine against Leishmania. DNA immunisation is a method, which is shown to be effective in Leishmania vaccination. However, the CTL activity does not necessarily correlate with the protection induced by the vaccine.

Also, gene gun immunisation is a potential approach in Leishmania vaccination.

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These findings would be helpful in opening new windows in Leishmania vaccine research. NKT cells have been associated with protection against Leishmania donovani, yet their role in infections with Leishmania mexicana has not been addressed, nor has the activation pathway been defined after stimulation with Leishmania mexicana lipophosphoglycan LPG. Published by Elsevier GmbH..